soviet union 1930s timeline

The first Bolshevik experience with a command economy was the policy of War communism, which involved the nationalization of industry, centralized distribution of output, coercive requisition of agricultural production, and attempts to eliminate money circulation, private enterprises and free trade. Mongol conquest • Grand Duchy of Moscow, February Revolution • Provisional Government The Supreme Court supervised the lower courts (People's Court) and applied the law as established by the constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet. [2] Those measures, however, were not fully enforced, as managers were hard-pressed to replace these workers. [42] Harry Hopkins, a close foreign policy advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt, spoke on 10 August 1943 of the USSR's decisive role in the war.[l]. The USSR, like Russia, had the world's longest border, measuring over 60,000 kilometres (37,000 mi), or ​1.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2 circumferences of Earth. 1930: More than 20,000 people are sentenced to death in the Soviet Union in 1930 1932 : one million people in Kazakhstan die of famine (caused by forced collectivization) 1933 : five million people in Ukraine die of famine (caused by forced collectivization) Absolutely. The ghastly price paid by the peasantry has yet to be established with precision, but probably up to 5 million people died of persecution or starvation in these years. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains. Coal production, a basic fuel of modern economies and Stalinist industrialization, rose from 35.4 million to 64 million tons, and the output of iron ore rose from 5.7 million to 19 million tons. The USSR had achieved legitimacy but was expelled in December 1939 for aggression against Finland. [45] This conflict ended with a decisive Soviet victory, contributing to the unconditional surrender of Japan and the end of World War II. The government encouraged a variety of trends. "'And all our classes turned into a flower garden again'–science education in Soviet schools in the 1920s and 1930s: the case of biology from Darwinism to Lysenkoism. However, as part of the general antisemitic policy, an unofficial Jewish quota was applied[when?] [159] Compared to countries with similar per-capita GDP in 1928, the Soviet Union experienced significant growth. The rare exceptions to 100% uniformity in the official media were indicators of high-level battles. [257] Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism. Following Lenin's death in 1924, Joseph Stalin came to power. This momentous decade ended with the beginning of World War II in Europe with Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland in … Derek W. Spring, "The Soviet decision for war against Finland, 30 November 1939. Without a mutually agreeable successor, the highest Communist Party officials initially opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly through a troika headed by Georgy Malenkov. Brezhnev presided throughout détente with the West that resulted in treaties on armament control (SALT I, SALT II, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty) while at the same time building up Soviet military might. : Alexander Nevski, as well as inviting prominent foreign individuals to tour the Soviet Union, were used as a method of gaining international influence and encouraging fellow travelers and pacifists to build popular fronts. When WWII broke out, the Soviet Union already rivalled Germany as one of the world’s two leading suppliers of weapons (Davies et al. 1991–1992  Crimean, For the specific Russian Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union sometimes referred to as Soviet Russia, see, Federal socialist state in Europe and Asia (1922-1991), "USSR", "CCCP", and "Soviet" redirect here. As Paul Froese explains: As this process unfolded, Stalin consolidated near-absolute power by destroying the potential opposition. However, in practice, the plans were highly aggregated and provisional, subject to ad hoc intervention by superiors. Starting in 1921 Lenin sought trade, loans and recognition. Helsinki, backed by world public opinion refused, so Stalin invaded. With Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukov attacking from Prussia, and Marshal Ivan Konev slicing Germany in half from the south, the fate of Nazi Germany was sealed. [69] After 1945, this loosening of social control was never completely undone as instead the state sought to co-opt the certain elements of the population, allowing certain rules to be contravened provided that the populace remained overall loyal. Going to a trial is also pointless: for a number of European countries this is a political issue, and they will make a decision clearly in whose favor. 4,000 new cases of thyroid cancer were reported after the incident, but this led to a relatively low number of deaths (WHO data, 2005). On 19–21 August 1991, a group of hardliners staged a coup attempt. [51] The USSR concentrated on its own recovery, seizing and transferring most of Germany's industrial plants, and it exacted war reparations from East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria using Soviet-dominated joint enterprises. The conference languages [18] Covering a sixth of Earth's land surface, its size was comparable to that of North America. Using terror, mass killings and deportations, most of the peasantry was collectivized by 1952. 1934–1990  Mordovian Stalin's laws to "tighten work discipline" made the situation worse: e.g., a 1932 change to the RSFSR labor law code enabled firing workers who had been absent without a reason from the workplace for just one day. The Soviet Olympic Committee formed on 21 April 1951, and the IOC recognized the new body in its 45th session. German forces invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. Pål Kolstø, "Political construction sites: Nation-building in Russia and the post-Soviet States". Soviets actively destroyed anarchist organizations and anarchist communities, labeling anarchists as "enemies of the people". Amid other accommodations to religious faith after the German invasion, churches were reopened. The Soviet famine of 1932–33 killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia. Although on 14 February 1992 Russia and other former Soviet republics signed agreement "On the return of cultural and historic property to the origin states" in Minsk, it was halted by Russian State Duma that had eventually passed "Federal Law on Cultural Valuables Displaced to the USSR as a Result of the Second World War and Located on the Territory of the Russian Federation" which made restitution currently impossible.[92]. [111] Depending on the degree of power consolidation, it was either the Politburo as a collective body or the General Secretary, who always was one of the Politburo members, that effectively led the party and the country[112] (except for the period of the highly personalized authority of Stalin, exercised directly through his position in the Council of Ministers rather than the Politburo after 1941). His successor as head of the NKVD (from 1938 to 1945) was Lavrentiy Beria, a Georgian friend of Stalin's. Soviet Lithuania was established on July 21, 1940. [234] The general tendency of this period was an increase in religious activity among believers of all faiths. One argues that the purges reflected Stalin's ambitions, his paranoia, and his inner drive to increase his power and eliminate potential rivals. The mass terror and purges were little known to the outside world, and some western intellectuals and fellow travellers continued to believe that the Soviets had created a successful alternative to a capitalist world . It was known as the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs (or Narkomindel), until 1946. The remaining 12 republics continued discussing new, increasingly looser, models of the Union. [171] By 1989, Soviet scientists were among the world's best-trained specialists in several areas, such as energy physics, selected areas of medicine, mathematics, welding and military technologies. During the later days of the USSR, countries with the same multilingual situation implemented similar policies. Many writers were imprisoned and killed.[255]. 1930 (30th January) The Politburo approved “On Measures for the Elimination of Kulak Households in Districts of Comprehensive Collectivisation”. ", Brooks, Jeffrey. The final blow was struck on 1 December when Ukraine, the second-most powerful republic, voted overwhelmingly for independence. In the 1930s, Stalin intensified his war on organized religion. The Church was now permitted to operate with a fair degree of freedom, so long as it did not get involved in politics. Глупость или измена? Censorship was relaxed as well. [241] The Soviet Union adopted a command economy, whereby production and distribution of goods were centralized and directed by the government. Because of widespread familiarity with the Cyrillic abbreviation, Latin alphabet users in particular almost always use the orthographically-similar Latin letters C and P (as opposed to the transliteral Latin letters S and R) when rendering the USSR's native abbreviation. Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process. Soviet intelligence was fooled by German disinformation and the invasion caught the Soviet military unprepared. [35] By 1938, the mass purges were starting to disrupt the country's infrastructure, and Stalin began winding them down. In other European languages, the locally translated short forms and abbreviations are usually used such as Union soviétique and URSS in French, or Sowjetunion and UdSSR in German. Stalin's policies granted the Soviet people access to free health care and education. Others were native­born Russians returning home and reuniting with families, hopeful that their lives would be better under a new regime. In architecture, the Khrushchev era mostly focused on functional design as opposed to the highly decorated style of Stalin's epoch. Another shuttle, Ptichka, eventually ended up under construction, as the shuttle project was canceled in 1991. Stalin suppressed all political opposition to his rule inside the Communist Party and initiated a centrally planned economy. [264], After the fall of the USSR, it was discovered that the environmental problems were greater than what the Soviet authorities admitted. The USSR urgently needed munitions, food and fuel that was provided by the U.S. and also Britain, primarily through Lend Lease. [citation needed] Stalin and the Communist Party were given full credit for the victory over Germany, and generals such as Zhukov were demoted to regional commands (Ukraine in his case). Due to this, anarchists generally hold a large animosity towards the USSR. The Komsomol also served as a mobile pool of labor and political activism, with the ability to relocate to areas of high-priority at short notice. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to further reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika. For that reason, the people of the USSR were usually called "Russians", not "Soviets", since "everyone knew who really ran the show".[143]. The regime loosened its emphasis on socialist realism; thus, for instance, many protagonists of the novels of author Yury Trifonov concerned themselves with problems of daily life rather than with building socialism. Founded on 20 July 1924 in Moscow, Sovetsky Sport was the first sports newspaper of the Soviet Union. After Stalingrad, Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945. [235], Under Nikita Khrushchev, the state leadership clashed with the churches in 1958–1964, a period when atheism was emphasized in the educational curriculum, and numerous state publications promoted atheistic views. The initial weeks of the war were a disaster, with tens of thousands of men being killed, wounded, or captured. Although in theory prices were legally set from above, in practice they were often negotiated, and informal horizontal links (e.g. [195] After heavy casualties in World War I and II, women outnumbered men in Russia by a 4:3 ratio. The Soviet Union attributed the crime to the Nazis until acknowledging responsibility in the late 1980s. [16] Stalin, for example, has been an editor of Pravda. [150] Grain and sophisticated consumer manufactures became major import articles from around the 1960s. Of the party heads themselves, Stalin (1941–1953) and Khrushchev (1958–1964) were Premiers. [47], Germany invaded Poland on September 1; the USSR followed on September 17. Gorbachev also moved to end the Cold War. Stalin was determined to punish those peoples he saw as collaborating with Germany during the war and to deal with the problem of nationalism, which would tend to pull the Soviet Union apart. After a landslide victory of Sąjūdis in Lithuania, that country declared its independence restored on 11 March 1990. // Латеральность населения СССР в конце 70-х и начале 80-х годов. The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing economic stagnation. The roles of women changed dramatically over the course of history in Soviet Russia under different leaders and economic and physical conditions. In addition, 900 specialist departments and 566 institutions were built and fully operational by 1933. Rather they facilitated Hitler's rapid advance to the gates of Moscow. At the same time, workers' councils, known in Russian as "Soviets", sprang up across the country. "The Social History of Post-War Soviet Life". Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (SSRs) were also admitted into the union which was not recognized by most of the international community and was considered an illegal occupation. By 1941, only 500 churches remained open out of about 54,000 in existence before World War I. They were the most numerous group deported by the Soviet Union. [105], In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Stalin ordered Marxist-Leninist parties across the world to strongly oppose non-Marxist political parties, labor unions or other organizations on the left. After all, the Soviet Constitution of 1936 was adopted on the eve of the Great Terror of the late 1930s; the "thoroughly democratic" elections to the first Supreme Soviet permitted only uncontested candidates and took place at the height of the savage violence in 1937. At the same time, infant mortality began to rise. Article 42 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution gave all citizens the right to health protection and free access to any health institutions in the USSR. I drink, before all, to the health of the Russian people, because in this war they earned general recognition as the leading force of the Soviet Union among all the nationalities of our country... And this trust of the Russian people in the Soviet Government was the decisive strength, which secured the historic victory over the enemy of humanity – over fascism..."[60]. [211] Some ethnic groups voluntarily assimilated, while others were brought in by force. In the same year, when the Soviet representative Konstantin Andrianov became an IOC member, the USSR officially joined the Olympic Movement. USSR and Germany divide Poland. 15 constituent or union republics; Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia (see Kyrgyzstan), Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldavia. Beginning in October 1918, Lenin's government liberalized divorce and abortion laws, decriminalized homosexuality (re-criminalized in the 1930s), permitted cohabitation, and ushered in a host of reforms. In large part due to the Holodomor, ethnic Ukrainians have a negative view of it. The country existed as a Soviet Union republic from 1940 to 1990 and was known as Soviet Lithuania or the Lithuanian SSR. In 1939, after attempts to form a military alliance with Britain and France against Germany failed, the Soviet Union made a dramatic shift towards Nazi Germany. With the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and with East and West Germany pursuing unification, the Iron Curtain between the West and Soviet-controlled regions came down.[55][56][57][58]. The 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki thus became first Olympic Games for Soviet athletes. Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov reversed Soviet policy regarding the Paris Peace Settlement, leading to a Franco-Soviet rapprochement. In the beginning, the Soviet authorities placed great emphasis on the elimination of illiteracy. After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin was seen as a hero for his decisive actions, while Gorbachev's power was effectively ended. [222], As the most widely spoken of the Soviet Union's many languages, Russian de facto functioned as an official language, as the "language of interethnic communication" (Russian: язык межнационального общения), but only assumed the de jure status as the official national language in 1990. [20] This event would later be officially known in Soviet bibliographies as the Great October Socialist Revolution. riddled with problems due to outdated infrastructure, lack of investment, corruption and bad decision-making. Soon after the downfall of the Russian Empire, the struggle between the Vladimir's Party which was Bolshevik Party and the … 4, 1998, pp. Kulaks were a group of relatively affluent farmers and had gone by this class systems term in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union. An agreement was made with the United States to remove nuclear missiles from both Cuba and Turkey, concluding the crisis. Russian Republic • October Revolution • Civil War(Red Army • White Guard • separatists • others), The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from the establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953. 1919–1990  Bashkir 48:46. [160], In 1990, the country had a Human Development Index of 0.920, placing it in the "high" category of human development. 09.01.2018 - Eisverkäufer in Wien, 1936 Timeline Classics/Timeline Images #1930er #1930s #Vienna #Austria #Österreich #Peterskirche #InnereStadt #Graben #Eis … But conditions improved rapidly during the second plan. This statistic in itself was seen by some that the socialist system was superior to the capitalist system. [146] As a result, the USSR was transformed from a largely agrarian economy into a great industrial power, leading the way for its emergence as a superpower after World War II. [46] According to Catherine Merridale, "... reasonable estimate would place the total number of excess deaths for the whole period somewhere around 60 million. On the centenary of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, this column shows that while the education of women and better survival rates of children improved opportunities for many citizens, Soviet Russia was a tough and unequal environment in However, in April 1941, the USSR signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact with Japan, recognizing the territorial integrity of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state. Wage setting by Soviet planners also contributed to the sharp decrease in unemployment, which dropped in real terms by 50% from 1928 to 1940. [116], However, in practice the degree of control the party was able to exercise over the state bureaucracy, particularly after the death of Stalin, was far from total, with the bureaucracy pursuing different interests that were at times in conflict with the party. Soviet secret-police and the mass-mobilization Communist Party served as Stalin's major tools in molding Soviet society. One of the most prominent breakthroughs was the GOELRO plan, which envisioned a major restructuring of the Soviet economy based on total electrification of the country. With multiple nationalities living in the same territory, ethnic antagonisms developed over the years. Pravda and Trud (the paper for manual workers) praised the draft constitution. The formal proclamation was made from the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre. Poland and the Soviet Union from the 1930s to the 1950s” that took place in Warsaw in March 2015. On 3 April 1922, Stalin was named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. [79] Much to the worry of the authorities, American films such as Stagecoach, The Roaring Twenties, The Count of Monte Cristo, and Sun Valley proved to be extremely popular with Soviet audiences. Mironov, Boris N. "The Development of Literacy in Russia and the USSR from the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries". to our newsletter! As a means of influencing a largely illiterate society, films received encouragement from the state, and much of director Sergei Eisenstein's best work dates from this period. [82] Between 1988/1989 and 1993/1995, the Gini ratio increased by an average of 9 points for all former socialist countries. [37] Over those two years, there were an average of over one thousand executions a day.[38][k]. On 28 December 1922, a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR[22] and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. World War II resulted in enormous destruction of infrastructure and populations throughout Eurasia, from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans, with almost no country left unscathed. In Ukraine alone, the number of people who died in the famines is now estimated to be 3.5 million. The war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. Despite improvements, several aspects of the transport sector were still[when?] Kenneth S. Deffeyes, Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert's Peak. In the 1930s however, all faiths were targeted: minority Christian denominations, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism. Although the 1946 drought was severe, government mismanagement of its grain reserves largely accounted for the population losses. Consumer goods in the Soviet Union were usually produced by a two-category industry. Greater experimentation in art forms was again permissible, resulting in the production of more sophisticated and subtly critical work. Throughout the 1930s, social mobility rose sharply, which has been attributed to reforms in education. In 1917, Vladimir Lenin seized power in the Russian Revolution, establishing a single-party dictatorship under the Bolsheviks. Religion strengthened underground and was revived to help fight the Second World War. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". The Comintern was the weapon of choice. The long period of Brezhnev's rule had come to be dubbed one of "standstill", with an ageing and ossified top political leadership. Following the dissolution, Russia was internationally recognized[62] as its legal successor on the international stage. [23] These two documents were confirmed by the first Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by the heads of the delegations,[24] Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze, Grigory Petrovsky, and Alexander Chervyakov,[25] on 30 December 1922. The Soviets quelled opposition by executing and arresting thousands. [26] The plan became the prototype for subsequent Five-Year Plans and was fulfilled by 1931. By 1936, Stalin reversed most of the liberal laws, ushering in a pronatalist era that lasted for decades.[194]. Underground dissident literature, known as samizdat, developed during this late period. Boulder, Colorado: Westview press 2000, pp. Uldricks, Teddy J. Various European communist parties were ordered not to form coalitions and instead to denounce moderate socialists as fascists. Other scholars argue that the massive death totals were an inevitable result of a very poorly planned operation against all peasants, who had given little support to Lenin or Stalin. Two major lines of interpretation have emerged among historians. From the end of 1944 to 1949, large sections of eastern Germany came under the Soviet Union's occupation and on 2 May 1945, the capital city Berlin was taken, while over fifteen million Germans were removed from eastern Germany and pushed into central Germany (later called the German Democratic Republic) and western Germany (later called the Federal Republic of Germany). In 1934, the French government proposed an alliance and led 30 governments to invite the USSR to join the League of Nations. [30] The pretext was the 1934 assassination of Sergey Kirov (which many suspect Stalin of having planned, although there is no evidence for this). In the larger sense, Stalin expected invasion but not so soon. [133] All leaders of the Communist Party before Gorbachev died in office, except Georgy Malenkov[134] and Khrushchev, both dismissed from the party leadership amid internal struggle within the party. The final allocation of output was achieved through relatively decentralized, unplanned contracting. Everyone talked about the film, they ran to see it whenever they had a chance, in the streets people whistled melodies from it, from half-open windows you hear people playing tunes from it on the piano". [14], Some organizations in Russian history were called council (Russian: совет). To that end, Russia voluntarily accepted all Soviet foreign debt and claimed Soviet overseas properties as its own. The life of the residents in the Soviet Union during the 1930s was based on the development and effects of such processes as collectivization and industrialization, the main accents were made on the equality of workers and their hard labor which often could be discussed even as heroic. A serious problem when creating these writing systems was that the languages differed dialectally greatly from each other. Notably, both Cyrillic letters used have orthographically-similar (but transliterally distinct) letters in Latin alphabets. As such, mobilization did not occur and the Soviet Army was tactically unprepared as of the invasion. In 1989, there served two million soldiers divided between 150 motorized and 52 armored divisions. Famines ensued as a result, causing deaths estimated at three to seven million; surviving kulaks were persecuted, and many were sent to Gulags to do forced labor. [20], Stalinist development also contributed to advances in health care, which marked a massive improvement over the Imperial era. [190] The rises in both adult and infant mortality were not explained or defended by Soviet officials, and the Soviet government stopped publishing all mortality statistics for ten years. [234] During this period, the number of churches fell from 20,000 to 10,000 from 1959 to 1965, and the number of synagogues dropped from 500 to 97. In 1962, he precipitated a crisis with the United States over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. Russians, Belarusians, and Ukrainians shared close cultural ties, while other groups did not. A variety of other estimates have been made. According to Robert L. Hutchings, "One can hardly doubt that if there had been a slower buildup of industry, the attack would have been successful and world history would have evolved quite differently. There were four key trials from 1936 to 1938, The Trial of the Sixteen was the first (December 1936); then the Trial of the Seventeen (January 1937); then the trial of Red Army generals, including Marshal Tukhachevsky (June 1937); and finally the Trial of the Twenty One (including Bukharin) in March 1938. Learn more about the Great Purge in this article. 'Journal of Military History, Martin Kahn, "'Russia Will Assuredly Be Defeated': Anglo-American Government Assessments of Soviet War Potential before Operation Barbarossa,”, Russia and the USSR, 1855–1991: Autocracy and Dictatorship p.147, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, 50th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide protests, Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia, political repression of the general population, one out of every three World War II deaths representing a citizen of the Soviet Union, Home front during World War II § Soviet Union, Soviet combat vehicle production during World War II, Art and science were subjected to rigorous censorship, Russian Association of Proletarian Writers, hegemony of the working-class values in fiction, Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies, "On the Prohibition of Unauthorized Departure by Laborers and Office Workers from Factories and Offices", "Famine and Oppression | History of Western Civilization II", Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish–Soviet War, 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Aggravation of class struggle under socialism, National delimitation in the Soviet Union, Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, 1906 Bolshevik raid on the Tsarevich Giorgi, Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR, 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Soviet_Union_(1927–1953)&oldid=1000260649, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Articles needing additional references from October 2009, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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